Biography & Career
He was a pioneer in studies of modern high design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities. Later commentators criticized Le Corbusier's plan to raze part of Paris and replace it with a grid of towers as soulless and arrogant, but his striking innovations have influenced every generation of architects that followed him.
Le Corbusier adopted his pseudonym in the 1920s, allegedly deriving it in part from the name of a distant ancestor, "Lecorbésier." However, it appears to have been an earlier (and somewhat unkind) nickname, which he simply decided to keep. It stems from the French for "the crow-like one". In the absence of a first name, some have suggested, pejoratively, that it indicates "a physical force as much as a human being," and brings to mind the French verb courber, to bend.
Early life and education, 1887–1913:
He was born as Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris in La Chaux-de-Fonds, a small city in Neuchâtel canton in north-western Switzerland, in the Jura mountains, just 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) across the border from France. He attended a kindergarten that used Fröbelian methods.
Le Corbusier was attracted to the visual arts and studied at the La-Chaux-de-Fonds Art School under Charles L'Eplattenier, who had studied in Budapest and Paris. His architecture teacher in the Art School was the architect René Chapallaz, who had a large influence on Le Corbusier's earliest houses.
In his early years he would frequently escape the somewhat provincial atmosphere of his hometown by traveling around Europe. About 1907, he traveled to Paris, where he found work in the office of Auguste Perret, the French pioneer of reinforced concrete. In 1908, He studied architecture in Vienna with Josef Hoffmann. Between October 1910 and March 1911, he worked near Berlin for the renowned architect Peter Behrens, where he might have met Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius. He became fluent in German. Both of these experiences proved influential in his later career.
Later in 1911, he journeyed to the Balkans and visited Bulgaria,Greece and Turkey, filling sketchbooks with renderings of what he saw, including many famous sketches of the Parthenon, whose forms he would later praise in his work Vers une architecture (1923) ("Towards an Architecture," but usually translated into English as "Towards a New Architecture").
Early career: the villas, 1914–1930:
Le Corbusier taught at his old school in La-Chaux-de-Fonds during World War I, not returning to Paris until the war was over. During these four years in Switzerland, he worked on theoretical architectural studies using modern techniques. Among these was his project for the "Dom-ino" House (1914–1915). This model proposed an open floor plan consisting of concrete slabs supported by a minimal number of thin, reinforced concrete columns around the edges, with a stairway providing access to each level on one side of the floor plan.
This design became the foundation for most of his architecture for the next ten years. Soon he would begin his own architectural practice with his cousin, Pierre Jeanneret (1896–1967), a partnership that would last until 1940.
In 1918, Le Corbusier met the Cubist painter, Amédée Ozenfant, in whom he recognised a kindred spirit. Ozenfant encouraged him to paint, and the two began a period of collaboration. Rejecting Cubism as irrational and "romantic," the pair jointly published their manifesto, Après le cubisme and established a new artistic movement, Purism. Ozenfant and Le Corbusier established the Purist journal L'Esprit nouveau. He was good friends with the Cubist artist Fernand Léger.
Pseudonym adopted, 1920:
In the first issue of the journal, in 1920, Charles-Edouard Jeanneret adopted Le Corbusier, an altered form of his maternal grandfather's name, "Lecorbésier", as a pseudonym, reflecting his belief that anyone could reinvent themselves. Some architectural historians claim that this pseudonym translates as "the raven-like one." Adopting a single name to identify oneself was in vogue by artists in many fields during that era, especially among those in Paris. The name "Le Corbusier" is a registered trademark (US Reg. 2073285) owned by the Fondation Le Corbusier and licensed for the production of designs created by Charles Jeanneret alone and with his co-authors Charlotte Perriand and Pierre Jeanneret.
Between 1918 and 1922:
Le Corbusier built nothing, concentrating his efforts on Purist theory and painting. In 1922, Le Corbusier and Ozenfant opened a studio in Paris at 35 rue de Sèvres. His theoretical studies soon advanced into several different single-family house models. Among these was the Maison "Citrohan", a pun on the name of the French Citroën automaker, for the modern industrial methods and materials Le Corbusier advocated using for the house. Here, Le Corbusier proposed a three-floor structure, with a double-height living room, bedrooms on the second floor, and a kitchen on the third floor. The roof would be occupied by a sun terrace. On the exterior Le Corbusier installed a stairway to provide second-floor access from ground level. Here, as in other projects from this period, he also designed the façades to include large expanses of uninterrupted banks of windows. The house used a rectangular plan, with exterior walls that were not filled by windows, left as white, stuccoed spaces. Le Corbusier and Jeanneret left the interior aesthetically spare, with any movable furniture made of tubular metal frames. Light fixtures usually comprised single, bare bulbs. Interior walls also were left white. Between 1922 and 1927, Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret designed many of these private houses for clients around Paris. In Boulogne-sur-Seine and the 16th arrondissement of Paris, Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret designed and built the Villa Lipschitz, Maison Cook (see William Edwards Cook), Maison Planeix, and the Maison La Roche/Albert Jeanneret, which now houses the Fondation Le Corbusier.
Le Corbusier took French citizenship in 1930.
Le Corbusier died due to one accident when he went for a swim on August 27, 1965, in the Mediterranean Sea at Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France. His body was found by bathers and he was It was assumed that he may have suffered a heart attack
Ample areas have been provided in the master plan of the Capital for parks. Out of a total area of 20,000 acres acquired for the first phase, about 2000 acres are meant for development of parks. Leisure Valley, Rajendra park, Bougainvillea Park, Zakir Rose Garden, Shanti Kunj, Hibiscus Garden, Garden of Fragrance, Botanical Garden, Smriti Upavan, Topiary garden and Terraced Garden are some of the famous parks of Chandigarh. Sukhna Lake, Rock Garden, Government Museum and Art Gallery are major tourist attractions of Chandigarh.
One unique feature in the layout of Chandigarh is its roads, classified in accordance with their functions. An integrated system of seven roads was designed to ensure efficient traffic circulation. Corbusier referred to these as the 7'Vs. the city's vertical roads run northeast/southwest (the 'Paths'). The horizontal roads run northwest/southwest ('The Margs'). The intersect at right angles, forming a grid or network for movement.
This arrangement of road-use leads to a remarkable hierarchy of movement, which also ensures that the residential areas are segregated from the noise and pollution of traffic.
Right from the day the foundation of the city was laid in 1952, the Administration has been successful in transforming this city into a world class
• 1908: Stotzer House, 6, Chemin de Pouillerel, la Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland.
• 1912: Villa Jeanneret-Perret, La Chaux-de-Fonds 
• 1916: Villa Schwob, La Chaux-de-Fonds
• 1922: Villa Besnus (Ker-Ka-Ré), Vaucresson, Paris, France
• 1922: Ozenfant House and Studio, Vaucresson, Paris. ( much altered.)
• 1923: Villa La Roche/Villa Jeanneret, Paris
• 1924: Pavillon de L'Esprit Nouveau, Paris (destroyed)
• 1924: Quartiers Modernes Frugès, Pessac, France
• 1925: Villa Jeanneret, Paris
• 1926: Villa Cook, Boulogne-sur-Seine, France
• 1926: Villa Ternisien, 5, Allee des Pins, Boulogne-sur-Seine, Paris. ( Block of apartments built over the house.)
• 1927: Villa Stein, Garches, Paris.
• 1927: Pleinex House, 24, Bis Boulevard Massena, Paris 13e.
• 1927: Villas at Weissenhof Estate, Stuttgart, Germany
• 1928: Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France View on the map
• 1929: Cité du Refuge, Armée du Salut, Paris, France
• 1930: Pavillon Suisse, Cité Universitaire, Paris
• 1930: Maison Errazuriz, Chile
• 1930: Las Nubes, house of Uruguayan novelist Enrique Amorim (Salto, Uruguay)
• 1931: Palace of the Soviets, Moscow, USSR (project)
• 1931: [[I2 ]], Geneva, Switzerland View on the map
• 1933: Tsentrosoyuz, Moscow, USSR
• 1936: Palace of Ministry of National Education and Public Health, Rio de Janeiro (as a consultant to Lucio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer and others)
• 1938: The "Cartesian" sky-scraper (project)
• 1945: Usine Claude et Duval, Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, France
• 1947–1952: Unité d'Habitation, Marseille, France View on the map, History of the Prefabricated Home
• 1948: Curutchet House, La Plata, Argentina
• 1949–1952: United Nations headquarters, New York City (Consultant)
• 1950–1954: Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France View on the map
• 1951: Cabanon de vacances, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin
• 1951: Maisons Jaoul, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
• 1951: Mill Owners' Association Building, villa Sarabhai and villa Schodan, Ahmedabad, India
• 1952: Unité d'Habitation of Nantes-Rezé, Nantes, France View on the map
1952–1959: Buildings in Chandigarh, India
• 1952: Palace of Justice (Chandigarh)
• 1952: Museum and Gallery of Art (Chandigarh)
• 1953: Secretariat Building (Chandigarh)
• 1953: Governor's Palace (Chandigarh)
• 1955: Palace of Assembly (Chandigarh)
• 1956: Shodan House
• 1959: Government College of Art (GCA) and the Chandigarh College of Architecture(CCA) (Chandigarh)
• 1956: Museum at Ahmedabad, Ahmedabad, India
• 1956: Saddam Hussein Gymnasium, Baghdad, Iraq
• 1957: Unité d'Habitation of Briey en Forêt, France
• 1957: National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
• 1957: Maison du Brésil, Cité Universitaire, Paris
• 1957–1960: Sainte Marie de La Tourette, near Lyon, France (with Iannis Xenakis)
• 1957: Unité d'Habitation of Berlin-Charlottenburg, Flatowallee 16, Berlin View on the map
• 1957: Unité d'Habitation of Meaux, France
1. Heidi Weber Museum, Zurich, Switzerland
2. National Museum of Western Artm Tokyo, Japan
3. Phillips Pavilion, Brussels, Belgium
4. Gustavo Capanema Palace, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
1. Museum of Ahemadabad ( India)
2. Secretariat Building Chandigarh ( India )
3. Palace of Justice, Chandigarh (India)
4. Open Hand Monument, Chandigarh (India)